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(11), , , , . :

, , pV = RT , , . , , . . - . , (11)

(9), , , .

(18) ( ):

, . , p . (19), . , , , .

, (18). p RT/V, :

, , V. :

, . 4:

, :

( ln ). , R . (21) : dV/Vt R. : dT/T, . (21)

: ( ). (22) , ,

;

1 2 , (25) , . , :

(26)

pV = RT, ( . .), (26)

(27)

(28)

(29)

.

, . . 8.1. , pV = RT , . pV = RT; . , , , .

pV = RT. , , - , , . , , .

8.1. , V ,

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