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3.

(. 7.3). , 1 , 2, () 2 , , () 1. , . , . 1 2 1. , , . , , ( , ). ( ), ( ) .

, ;

. 7.3. .

( ) ( ).

(7.4) 2

- , (7.5) , .

, (, ), , . (7.5) (7.6)

, , .

.

2 (. 7.4).

,

. 7.4. 2 ,

(7.5)

. (7.10),

:

,

:

(7.12) (7.13)

[ (7.12) (7.13)] . (7.11)

TEMnm (transverse electro-magnetic).

, . ( ) , , .

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